13 Minutes to the Moon. #Apollo11 is in theaters everywhere March 8. Armalcolite was named after Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins.  Chris Kraft revealed in his 2001 autobiography that a meeting occurred between Gilruth, Slayton, Low, and himself to make sure Aldrin would not be the first to walk on the Moon. Add to My Podcasts. , The Soviet Union competed with the US in the Space Race, but its early lead was lost through repeated failures in development of the N1 launcher, which was comparable to the Saturn V. The Soviets tried to beat the US to return lunar material to the Earth by means of uncrewed probes. This surprise success fired fears and imaginations around the world. One of the advantages of liquid-propelled rockets is that they can be shut down. Mode One-Charlie begins at an altitude of about 30.5 km. If this checkout does occur, we acquire Goldstone at 1 hour, 29 minutes elapsed time. Like the previous time base, this will coordinate the events around staging and the subsequent control of the third stage.  The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum set up an Adobe Flash website that rebroadcasts the transmissions of Apollo 11 from launch to landing on the Moon.  In July 2010, air-to-ground voice recordings and film footage shot in Mission Control during the Apollo 11 powered descent and landing was re-synchronized and released for the first time. , Humans walking on the Moon and returning safely to Earth accomplished Kennedy's goal set eight years earlier. Due to design and manufacturing delays in the LM, Apollo 8 and Apollo 9 swapped prime and backup crews, and Armstrong's crew became the backup for Apollo 8. , The astronauts planted the Lunar Flag Assembly containing a flag of the United States on the lunar surface, in clear view of the TV camera. Spacelog Apollo 13.  The crew toured from September 29 to November 5. Aldrin remarked that moving from sunlight into Eagle's shadow produced no temperature change inside the suit, but the helmet was warmer in sunlight, so he felt cooler in shadow. Actually, it's just the one engine, the central engine in the cluster of J-2s.  On the same evening in Los Angeles there was an official state dinner to celebrate the flight, attended by members of Congress, 44 governors, the Chief Justice of the United States, and ambassadors from 83 nations at the Century Plaza Hotel.  In early 1969, he accepted a job with the National Aeronautics and Space Council effective August 1969, and announced he would retire as an astronaut at that time. Cut-off of the central or inboard engine engine of the S-IC as acceleration nears 4g. Published. This pump also has two outlet lines, with valves, to feed the injector plate. S-IVB stage ignition. , An estimated one million spectators watched the launch of Apollo 11 from the highways and beaches in the vicinity of the launch site.  Slayton told Armstrong the plan was to have him leave the spacecraft first, if he agreed. " Subsequent Apollo missions planted their flags farther from the LM. However, as mentioned earlier, this likely will run another 2 hours. The level in the tank was checked again at T-13 hours and again at T-1 hour. 00 00 05 28 CC S-IVB to COI capability. (Click image for a larger version.). , The three astronauts spoke before a joint session of Congress on September 16, 1969. When Columbia came back around to the near side of the Moon again, he was able to report that the problem had been resolved.  On reaching Pearl Harbor on July 5, Hornet embarked the Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King helicopters of HS-4, a unit which specialized in recovery of Apollo spacecraft, specialized divers of UDT Detachment Apollo, a 35-man NASA recovery team, and about 120 media representatives.  In Collins' 1976 book, he said Columbia was in reference to Christopher Columbus. Between the suiting-up room and the spacecraft, each crewman carried his own oxygen supply in a suitcase-sized unit. The ribbon cutting ceremony was on September 29, 2019. Apollo 11, U.S. spaceflight in which astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to walk on the Moon. At Lovell's suggestion, he chose the bald eagle, the national bird of the United States, as the symbol. They were found on the Atlantic seabed using advanced sonar scanning. Inboard engines are out, on the second stage as planned. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue.  The Apollo project was enabled by NASA's adoption of new advances in semiconductor electronic technology, including metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) and silicon integrated circuit (IC) chips in the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC). When later asked about his quote, Armstrong said he believed he said "for a man", and subsequent printed versions of the quote included the "a" in square brackets. Loping became the preferred method of movement. 13 Minutes to the Moon Apollo 11 spacecraft preparations. Follow the countdown here minute-by-minute until the Saturn V lifts off. In Mission Control during the Apollo 11 landing, Kennedy's speech flashed on the screen, followed by the words "TASK ACCOMPLISHED, July 1969". Armstrong used a pen to bridge the circuit and stop them from being stuck on the moon. The possibility of bringing back pathogens from the lunar surface was considered remote, but NASA took precautions at the recovery site. This Final Approach film by René and Jonathan Cantin is a side-by-side composite of the landing film and Lunar Orbiter Frame 5076_h3, with a number of craters matched up in the two views. The fuel flushes out ethylene glycol which had been preloaded into the cooling pipework around the combustion chamber and nozzle. Downrange, 530 [nautical] miles [982 km]; altitude, 95 [nautical] miles [176 km]; velocity, 17,358 feet per second [5,291 m/s]. Katherine Johnson and other "Human Computers" played an integral role in the early days of America's space program. About. Actually, the computer was programmed to do more than recognize error conditions. A line from one of these feeds supplies the gas generator with fuel. In particular, time base 4 will shut down the S-IVB stage when orbital velocity has been reached. For a skip-out re-entry, P65 and P66 were employed to handle the exit and entry parts of the skip. Output went to the LGC to command the reaction control system (RCS) jets to fire. 135 seconds after the start of time base 1, its programming shuts down the central or inboard engine of the Saturn V in order to limit the vehicle's rapidly rising acceleration.  Two types of rocks were found in the geological samples: basalt and breccia. ", "Report: Humans have left 500,000 pounds of 'trash' on the Moon", "An Audience with Neil Armstrong (2011 interview)", "Neil Armstrong's widow discovers moon camera in cupboard", "Lunar Surface Flown Apollo 11 Artifacts From the Neil Armstrong Estate", "The Armstrong Purse: Flown Apollo 11 Lunar Artifacts", "Apollo 11 Partial Restoration HD Videos (Downloads)", "Sound restored to mission control film shot during Apollo 11 Moon landing", "Apollo 11 Crew Meets With President Obama", "Obama Hails Apollo Crew From a Lens of Childhood", "Text of S.951 as Engrossed in Senate: New Frontier Congressional Gold Medal Act—U.S. "Out of Detent" meant the stick had moved away from its centered position; it was spring-centered like the turn indicator in a car. , For 40 years Armstrong's and Aldrin's space suits were displayed in the museum's Apollo to the Moon exhibit, until it permanently closed on December 3, 2018, to be replaced by a new gallery which was scheduled to open in 2022. Kennedy. The final site selection was based on seven criteria: The requirement for the Sun angle was particularly restrictive, limiting the launch date to one day per month. The platform's orientation with respect to the theodolite will be maintained until just 17 seconds before launch. During descent, a malfunction caused Luna 15 to crash in Mare Crisium about two hours before Armstrong and Aldrin took off from the Moon's surface to begin their voyage home. Downrange 1 [nautical] mile [1.8 km], altitude 3, 4 [nautical] miles [7.4 km] now. View All Employees. Based on a vector from the Instrument Unit of the third stage of the Saturn V, here on the ground we're showing an orbit of 102.5 by 99.7 nautical miles [189.8 by 184.6 km]. This ring, the interstage, is there to make room for the S-II's engines which protrude some distance below the bottom edge of the stage's wall. Eagle and Columbia Reconnect. Apollo 11, U.S. spaceflight in which astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to walk on the Moon. It demonstrated that the Soviet Union had the capability to deliver nuclear weapons over intercontinental distances, and challenged American claims of military, economic and technological superiority. We want to assure ourselves before lift-off that that engine can respond to commands from … This is achieved using a theodolite located 210 metres directly south of the vehicle which shines a beam of light through a window in the skin of the IU and another in the casing that surrounds the platform. While this was enough for mission planners to make their decision, Aldrin and Armstrong were left in the dark on the decision until late spring. It's three hours and 32 minutes until man begins the greatest adventure in his history," "CBS Evening News" anchor Walter Cronkite told Americans at 6 a.m. on the morning of the Apollo 11 launch. 190 [nautical] miles [352 km] downrange now, 72 [nautical] miles [133 km] high, velocity 11,000 feet per second [3,353 m/s]. This was later found to be the result of greater propellant 'slosh' than expected, uncovering a fuel sensor. I was concentrating on the computers, and Neil was studying the attitude indicator, but I looked up long enough to see the flag fall over. The first and dominant reason is that the mass of the vehicle as a whole is dropping by over 13 metric tons every second.  The landing site had to be close to the lunar equator to minimize the amount of propellant required, clear of obstacles to minimize maneuvering, and flat to simplify the task of the landing radar. We're approaching the 60-second mark on the Apollo 11 mission. , Since the Soviet Union had higher lift capacity launch vehicles, Kennedy chose, from among options presented by NASA, a challenge beyond the capacity of the existing generation of rocketry, so that the US and Soviet Union would be starting from a position of equality. This is Apollo Control. The program also included a 17-minute show that combined full-motion video projected on the Washington Monument to recreate the assembly and launch of the Saturn V rocket. By 1973, 59 percent of those polled favored cutting spending on space exploration. On July 13, three days before Apollo 11's launch, the Soviet Union launched Luna 15, which reached lunar orbit before Apollo 11. Armstrong: Thank you, Mr. President. " Aldrin joined him on the surface and tested methods for moving around, including two-footed kangaroo hops. , This celebration began a 38-day world tour that brought the astronauts to 22 foreign countries and included visits with the leaders of many countries.  A well-defined objective helped Project Apollo accomplish its goal, but after it was completed it was hard to justify continuing the lunar missions. The Apollo spacecraft reached Earth parking orbit after 11 minutes. Fluid pressure through calibrated orifices completes the opening of the fuel valves and fuel enters the combustion chamber where it burns in the already flaming gases. The final minutes before landing were tense, as fuel ran low and connections were lost. Having the rendezvous radar on (so it was warmed up in case of an emergency landing abort) should have been irrelevant to the computer, but an electrical phasing mismatch between two parts of the rendezvous radar system could cause the stationary antenna to appear to the computer as dithering back and forth between two positions, depending upon how the hardware randomly powered up. Two and a half hours after landing, before preparations began for the EVA, Aldrin radioed to Earth: This is the LM pilot. Armstrong was concerned that "eleven" would not be understood by non-English speakers, so they went with "Apollo 11", and they decided not to put their names on the patch, so it would "be representative of everyone who had worked toward a lunar landing".  Reconnaissance aircraft flying to the original splashdown location reported the conditions Brandli and Houston had predicted. A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver in which two spacecraft navigate through space and meet up. Lift-off under S-IC power. Climbing down the nine-rung ladder, Armstrong pulled a D-ring to deploy the modular equipment stowage assembly (MESA) folded against Eagle's side and activate the TV camera. He was followed about 5 minutes later by Mike Collins, and finally Buzz Aldrin, the man who is sitting in the middle seat during lift-off, was the third astronaut to come aboard. Successful re-entries after a journey to the Moon had already taken place aboard NASA's Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 missions, and Apollo 11 was expected to follow the same procedures. The other back-up crew members are Commander Jim Lovell and Command Module Pilot Bill Anders. The remote control unit on his chest kept him from seeing his feet. , On August 13, the three astronauts rode in ticker-tape parades in their honor in New York and Chicago, with an estimated six million attendees. , After about seven hours of rest, the crew was awakened by Houston to prepare for the return flight.  The flag of American Samoa on Apollo 11 is on display at the Jean P. Haydon Museum in Pago Pago, the capital of American Samoa. , Slayton roused the crew shortly after 04:00, and they showered, shaved, and had the traditional pre-flight breakfast of steak and eggs with Slayton and the backup crew.  Apollo 11 landed with less fuel than most subsequent missions, and the astronauts encountered a premature low fuel warning.  Around 3,500 media representatives were present. Now 107 feet (33 m) above the surface, Armstrong knew their propellant supply was dwindling and was determined to land at the first possible landing site. Standing by for the outboard engine cut-down [means "shutdown"] now. As a result, the engines have a decreasing mass to push against. Er war damit das erste erkennbar moderne eingebettete System. Apollo 11 is still right down the ground track. , First crewed space mission to land on the Moon, This article is about the 1969 crewed lunar mission. Personally, in reflecting on the events of the past several days, a verse from Psalms comes to mind. All this is possible only through the blood, sweat, and tears of a number of people ... All you see is the three of us, but beneath the surface are thousands and thousands of others, and to all of those, I would like to say, "Thank you very much. At this time NASA was still fighting a lawsuit brought by atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair (who had objected to the Apollo 8 crew reading from the Book of Genesis) demanding that their astronauts refrain from broadcasting religious activities while in space. Initially, the LOX is fed at a slow rate which furiously boils as it contacts the relatively warm tank structure. See the Past, Present and Future of American Spaceflight in 4 Minutes Apollo 11 Had 3 Men Aboard, But Only 2 Walked on the Moon.  This precipitated the Sputnik crisis, and triggered the Space Race.  The success of Apollo 11 demonstrated the United States' technological superiority; and with the success of Apollo 11, America had won the Space Race. Although Armstrong as commander has his own window through the Boost Protection Cover attached to the Launch Escape Tower, and Aldrin in the center couch can see through the hatch window above his head, Collins in the right-hand couch has had his windows covered up to this point. For other uses, see.  Armstrong did not agree with the assessment, and said "... all the crews I was on worked very well together. A complete set of recovery programs was incorporated into the software. , One of Collins' first tasks was to identify the lunar module on the ground. The transcript begins at the start of a hold in the Apollo 11 countdown at the three-and-a-half-hour point before launch. Downrange, 140 [nautical] miles [259 km]; altitude, 62 [nautical] miles [115 km]; velocity, 10,300 feet per second [3,140 m/s]. The astronauts arrived at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at 10:00 UTC on July 28. Second Man on the Moon.  At 02:51 Armstrong began his descent to the lunar surface. The software's action, in this case, was to eliminate lower priority tasks and re-establish the more important ones. It's magnificent and unique, an adrenaline shot of wonder and skill. KSC-69PC-387 - Apollo 11 Saturn V from the Firing Room at the Kennedy Space Center after rising about ten times its own length. This diagram shows how the thrust rose during the start-up of each engine. Change in mixture ratio caused by the operation of the PU valve. However, while the launch vehicle is sitting on the pad, the platform must not gyrocompass. Altitude 102.8 nautical miles [190.4 km]. Show notes. Rising combustion-induced pressure on the injector plate actuates the ignition monitor valve, directing hydraulic fluid to open the main fuel valves. Auto." They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Booster says it's looking good at 5 minutes. We only got about 24 minutes tracking now and it’s really too early … , Apollo 11 used slow-scan television (TV) incompatible with broadcast TV, so it was displayed on a special monitor, and a conventional TV camera viewed this monitor, significantly reducing the quality of the picture. Ken Mattingly was moved from the support crew into parallel training with Anders as backup CMP in case Apollo 11 was delayed past its intended July launch date, at which point Anders would be unavailable. The fuel uncovers a sensor starting that sequence. , On July 20, 2009, Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins met with US President Barack Obama at the White House.  About two-thirds were from the United States; the rest came from 55 other countries. Apollo 11 Lands Back on Earth. The Fra Mauro site was reassigned to Apollo 14. Downrange, 1,000 [nautical] miles [1,852 km]; altitude, 101 [nautical] miles [187 km]. Employees. A countdown test commenced on June 26, and concluded on July 2. It is interesting to note that the interstage failed to separate on the Saturn V that lofted Skylab to space. It has been rendered liquid by being cooled to about -183°C, just below its boiling point thereby allowing large quantities to be carried in huge tanks. 00 00 05 06 CDR Roger. , One of the first versions of the egress checklist had the lunar module pilot exit the spacecraft before the commander, which matched what had been done on Gemini missions, where the commander had never performed the spacewalk.  The public's reaction in the Soviet Union was mixed. Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight to put humans on the surface of the Moon when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed the Eagle Lunar Module (LM) on July 20 th 1969. This was because hypersonic testing had shown that the CM-LET combination had a stable tower-first attitude.  A presidential party consisting of Nixon, Borman, Secretary of State William P. Rogers and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger flew to Johnston Atoll on Air Force One, then to the command ship USS Arlington in Marine One. Then the tilt motion will be a simple pitch motion around the Y-axis. Apollo 11: Mission Out of Control The inside story of how Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin struggled to touch down on the moon, while their guidance computer kept crashing. Most of Africa and parts of Europe and Asia are visible. The Eagle has landed." Eighty-second mark has now been passed. Er wurde benutzt, um in Echtzeit Fluginformationen zu sammeln und zur Verfügung zu stellen, sowie alle Navigationsfunktionen des Apollo-Raumfahrzeugs automatisch zu steuern. From director Todd Douglas Miller (Dinosaur 13) comes a cinematic event fifty years in the making. A crewed mission to the Moon would serve this purpose. Range safety is concerned with ensuring that if the rocket were to go wayward, it would do so without threatening injury or death to those on the ground. Columbia was taken to Ford Island for deactivation, and its pyrotechnics made safe. This mode extends to about 35.5 km altitude. The Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, the only part that returned to Earth; a service module (SM), which supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module (LM) that had two stages—a descent stage for landing on the Moon and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit. The engines are started in a staggered 1-2-2 sequence so that the rocket's structure would be spared a single large load increase, with the centre engine being the first to start. The PAO also switches, and Jack King relinquishes the commentary to the Houston PAO, whose voice is heard from now on. First, a description of the engine. The second stage engines then cut off and separated at about 9 minutes and 8 seconds, allowing the first ignition of the S-IVB engine a few seconds later. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin formed the American crew that landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:17 UTC (14:17 CST). , By the normal crew rotation in place during Apollo, Lovell, Mattingly, and Haise were scheduled to fly on Apollo 14 after backing up for Apollo 11. Duration: 14:22. Apollo 11 presently 22,952 nautical miles [42,507 km] out from the Moon, and traveling at a velocity of 3,858 feet per second [1,176 m/s]. The decision was announced in a press conference on April 14, 1969. Areas that appeared promising on photographs taken on Earth were often found to be totally unacceptable. To achieve this in a One-Alpha abort, a small 'pitch control' motor would additionally fire to send the CM away from the vicinity of the impending conflagration. Fearful that the Russians would continue their lead in the space race and be the first to put a man on the moon, NASA felt an enormous pressure to push the Apollo Program forward as quickly as possible, though they knew that pushing too hard could lead to the ultimate disaster. Learn about Apollo 11‘s historic journey to the Moon in this summary of all significant events during the mission to put humans on the lunar surface.. " Nixon originally had a long speech prepared to read during the phone call, but Frank Borman, who was at the White House as a NASA liaison during Apollo 11, convinced Nixon to keep his words brief.. After Aldrin and Armstrong completed their EVA, Collins slept so he could be rested for the rendezvous.  When Kennedy met with Nikita Khrushchev, the Premier of the Soviet Union in June 1961, he proposed making the Moon landing a joint project, but Khrushchev did not take up the offer. Early Years Training Cons is a primary/secondary education company based out of 2771 Colony Park Dr, Memphis, Tennessee, United States. At 3 minutes; downrange, 70 [nautical] miles [130 km]; 43 [nautical] miles high [80 km]; velocity, 9,300 feet per second [2,835 m/s]. Flight Director Gene Kranz speculated that it could have resulted from extra air pressure in the docking tunnel. This was observed by the helicopters. Nixon and Agnew honored each astronaut with a presentation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. As the launch crew establish communication with the spacecraft, it should be noted that the seating positions on Apollo 11 were different to all the other Apollo missions. KSC-69PC-442 - The Apollo 11 space vehicle moments after lift-off. Six seconds after the jettison of the escape tower, the guidance mode of the Saturn changes from dumb to smart, from open loop to closed loop. Scan by Kipp Teague. T-minus 4: Apollo 11. Although it has been said "not since Adam has any human known such solitude", Collins felt very much a part of the mission. became a common saying following Apollo 11. Now that the vehicle is essentially in a vacuum, the computer can react to its actual position and velocity and issue steering commands to the engines as required to reach its goal. 16 July 1969. The last line of the prepared text contained an allusion to Rupert Brooke's First World War poem, "The Soldier".  "We expect that there is, as we speak, another generation of kids out there who are looking up at the sky and are going to be the next Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin", Obama said. Five minutes into the descent burn, and 6,000 feet (1,800 m) above the surface of the Moon, the LM guidance computer (LGC) distracted the crew with the first of several unexpected 1201 and 1202 program alarms. it provides a flame to initiate and maintain full combustion. They sat down for the normal astronaut fare on launch day, as far as breakfast is concerned; orange juice, steaks, scrambled eggs, toast and coffee.  In the early hours of the morning, the fuel tanks of the S-II and S-IVB stages were filled with liquid hydrogen. The ASI (Augmented Spark Igniter) is mounted in the centre of the injector face and fed with propellant. The sequence of events for the first ignition of the single J-2 engine in the third stage is essentially the same as for the engines in the S-II. The three pilots were joined by two of their colleagues at breakfast, Director of Flight Crew Operations Deke Slayton, and the backup Command Module Pilot Bill Anders, who has been named the Executive Secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council. , During the first press conference after the Apollo 11 crew was announced, the first question was, "Which one of you gentlemen will be the first man to step onto the lunar surface? After finishing their work, Armstrong and Aldrin returned to the Eagle and slept for seven hours before starting to leave. I'm talking to you by telephone from the Oval Room at the White House. Directly above the turbine, on the same shaft, is the fuel pump with two inlets from the fuel tank and two outlets that feed high pressure fuel, via shut-off valves, to the injector plate. The fuel for the S-II and S-IVB stages is liquid hydrogen (LH. He will report a refined orbit after more radar tracking. ", "Gil Scott-Heron's Poem, 'Whitey on the Moon, "Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions", "Russians Finally Admit They Lost Race to Moon", "The Moon Landing through Soviet Eyes: A Q&A with Sergei Khrushchev, son of former premier Nikita Khrushchev", Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "Neil Armstrong's sons help open exhibit of father's spacecraft in Ohio", "Neil Armstrong's Apollo 11 spacesuit unveiled at Smithsonian", "National Air and Space Museum Moves Apollo Artifact to Future Home", "Amazon boss Jeff Bezos 'finds Apollo 11 Moon engines, "Bezos Expeditions retrieves and identifies Apollo 11 engine #5, NASA confirms identity", "Apollo 11 SIVB NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1969-059B", "Where today are the Apollo 11 goodwill lunar sample displays? All three stages use liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidiser component in the burning process. The Saturn's propellant tanks have shaped explosive charges attached. It also referred to Columbia, a historical name of the United States. A PU (Propellant Utilization) valve on the output of the LOX turbopump can open to reduce the LOX flowrate. Because the astronauts had their spacesuits on and the spacecraft was so small, maneuvering to exit the spacecraft was difficult. Once a specific velocity had been reached, which occurred 5 minutes, 31.8 seconds after the engines were commanded to start, the MR for the remaining four engines was reduced to 4.34:1 for the rest of the burn.  In October 1968, Apollo 7 evaluated the command module in Earth orbit, and in December Apollo 8 tested it in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 - Powered Descent - July 20, 1969. extract by GoneToPlaid. In the rocketry situation, two things are happening to vary this pressure: the vehicle's rising speed makes it higher; the rapidly thinning atmosphere brings it down. I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade [1960s] is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. BIGs were worn until they reached isolation facilities on board Hornet. For every American, this has to be the proudest day of our lives. With the cut-off of the S-IVB's first burn, the vehicle is in orbit and the acceleration drops to zero. The Apollo 11 was the first human-crewed mission to land on the Moon. The interstage ullage rockets were eventually deleted from the later Saturn Vs. Ullage is a brewer's term for the space in a barrel taken up by air rather than liquor. CAPCOM You're welcome. As it flies through the air, the rocket must withstand an aerodynamic pressure imparted by its speed through the molecules of the atmosphere. The Space Race had ended, and Cold War tensions were easing as the US and Soviet Union entered the era of détente.  At 16:44 UTC (05:44 local time) Columbia's drogue parachutes were deployed. Apollo 11 was the culmination of the Apollo program and a massive national commitment by the United States to beat the Soviet Union in putting people on the Moon.