Definition of Black maria… Are You Learning English? Mid 19th century (originally US): said to be named after a black woman, Maria Lee, who kept a boarding house in Boston and helped police in escorting drunk and disorderly customers to jail. The Black Maria is a police van Usually used for the transportation of prisoners. Old Tekno triangel police version No.427. Black Maria definition: 1. a police vehicle used to transport prisoners 2. a police vehicle used to transport prisoners. I surfed in here looking for what all have commented on…, I recently came upon the term “Black Maria” in a small leaflet about the Quakers of Chester County, PA that would help escaping slaves on the Underground Railroad with a “specially outfitted wagon” with quilts covering their cargo of “escaping slaves” they called their wagon “Black Maria”. Black Maria A Manchester City Police officer stands alongside one of the force’s Morris vans in the yard of Longsight Police Station in the late 1950s or early 1960s. Create a free account. But somebody reached over and hit me in the jaw. This baffled a lot of youngsters as Police vehicles generally started to be painted white sometime in the 60’s. Original Publication: The Graphic - pub. Here come the Big Black Mariah baby 1informal A police vehicle for transporting prisoners. I am in my eighties and always heard my Irish side of the family (Clarks and Scotts) describe the Irish hearse as a black myrhia or some similar spelling, but my spell checker will not accept it or any version that I attempt. "She was a woman of such great size and strength that the unruly stood in dread of her, and when … Goodbye to the Brixton sun. Big Black Mariah here come the Big Black Mariah Black Maria (plural Black Marias) 1. Sign in. Hmm. Black Maria definition: a police van for transporting prisoners | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Our ethymological dictionary puts its ethymology as translation on swedish term which originates as a translation on a dutch term. TODAY IT SEEMS WHITE IS THE PREFERRED STANDARD COLOR. 1 decade ago . Original Artist: By Renouard. I think he may have had a few rides in the Maria himself! To search for a specific phrase, put it between quotation marks. When the Police were trying to get a suspect into one of their vans and he was putting up resistance, all they did was call Maria. Answer Save. You can update your preferences, withdraw your consent at any time, and see a detailed description of the types of cookies we and our partners use in our Cookie Policy. Ain’t we the cat’s meow. Here come the Big Black Mariah In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States, a police wagon was also sometimes called a Black Maria (/məˈraɪə/ mə-RY-ə). mls. Blake picked it up and officers disengaged and drew their guns. : ), I’m cutting through the cane break rattling the sill These were the ‘Black Marias’, so named after Maria Lee, a giant Boston Negress whose size and strength was such that when the constables required assistance it was common to send for Maria… Lexico's first Word of the Year! Anyway, to me, “paddy wagon” refers to cops coming onto a scene, and “Black Mariah” refers to people being taken from the scene. The racehorse explanation makes no sense to me. my family from the ‘old sod’ of Ireland tell me the ‘paddy’ was a drunken wastrel as opposed to the ‘patty’s’ who drove the thing.the ‘black mariah’ was in effect your hearse for when it came for you, from the brits or constabulay, you wouldn’t be coming back. How did it get this name? A “Black Maria” is, as you say, a police van or similar conveyance used to transport prisoners to jail or to court appearances, and it’s worth noting at the outset that “Maria” in this case is usually pronounced “mah-RYE-ah,” as was common in … This type of vehicle, with a secure compartment in which prisoners could be carried, was commonly referred to as a Black Maria. “Paddy wagon” is far more common. My mother often referred to her father’s paddy wagon as the Black Maria. Or do you just have an interest in foreign languages? 1887 Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Perhaps this will ad a new theory as to the usage of the term. Data simply equals money, and as the financial system keeps reminding us money is quite ephemeral. A hundred yellow bullets with a rag out in the wind When she arrived at the scene, all the suspect had to do was take one good look at her and he practically ran into the van rather than face her. (And it is. I have seen it spelled with h at the end “mariah” to make it easier to pronounce. black Maria - van used by police to transport prisoners. In London, a Bobby’s cap was called a Bobby cap, it only made sense if the officer was a Paddy, his wagon formerly called a police wagon would now be called a Paddywagon. Black Maria Strathclyde Police Prisoner Transport Van of the late 80s and early 90s. The giant woman aided the police so often that the saying “send for the Black Maria” became common whenever there was trouble with an offender. Mid 19th century (originally US): said to be named after a black woman, Maria Lee, who kept a boarding house in Boston and helped police in escorting drunk and disorderly customers to jail. Noble Wray, a Black former police chief and a use-of-force expert who reviewed the investigation, said Blake had a knife that apparently fell to the ground during the struggle. From the collection of early 20th Century freelance photographer, Mr Fred Port. Here come the Big Black Mariah Useful for policing when there was no disease about… John O’Brian’s input is also very familiar! The most credible theory yet advanced of the origin of “Black Maria” does tie the phrase to an actual “Maria,” but not a human one. http://www.latin-is-simple.com/en/vocabulary/noun/121/. Black Maria was indeed named after a racehorse and it was not due to the speed of the horse-drawn wagon, most of these horse-drawn wagons didn’t come about until after 1885, in fact, Baltimore Police was second to Boston for having the Police wagon and around the same time a racehorse owned by the name of J K Maddux had a horse named Black Maria. I find my spell-checker’s choices fascinating. 2. Please note that comments are moderated, and will sometimes take a few days to appear. In Glasgow – where I was brought up – the Black Mariah was what all the older generation called prisoner transport vehicles – particularly those belonging to the police. long whist, short whist, whist - a card game for four players who form two partnerships; a pack of 52 cards … 2. I HAD ALWAYS HEARD OF THE TERM Only prison transport remained dark blue/black and was known as the Black Mariah, the term gradually falling into almost complete disuse in the late 80s as did the dark coloured vehicles. There were many beer parlour fights in those days in what was a rather wild frontier town full of loggers and ranchers in those days. The Name Black Maria is a slang term for a Police vehicle used to transport prisoners, this term and also the term “Paddy Wagon” seem to have evolved in America and have traveled worldwide and are found in everyday usage in many countries. I know only that many published books that refer to the old Irish black hearses alway used my “lost” spelling of the word – but, I can assure you that all contain the alpha character “y.”, We always state that one cheated the black myrhia(sp) another time when describing a close encounter … Sign in. I remember they were called Black Mariahs when I was a child, I asked why then and no one could tell me, I have search for a … Used to transport multiple prisoners from say a crime scene or from jail to the courthouse. Not an Americanism at all… In this context it’s Irish! The police wagon would be brought out in expectation of trouble or mass arrests. The Boston story is about Maria Lee, a large black woman who kept a boarding house in the 1820s with such severity that she became more feared than the police, who called on her to help them catch and restrain criminals. With no phones, you could rarely ‘send for the wagon.’ Instead, you would march your prisoner(s) through the street to jail with, if necessary, citizen assistance. Your comments frequently make an invaluable contribution to the story of words and phrases in everyday usage over many years. Data is something else, of course, but is even more ephemeral than hardware. Yes – and the Black Mariah was a police wagon pulled by multiple horses originally – as in Latin ‘Maria':- P.S. 6 Answers. We had an influx of Irish police in Boston, New York, Baltimore, and other big cities with this came a nickname from the public… Like you might have heard London where the police were referred to as a Bobby, US officers were now being called a Paddy. It might also be worth noting at the time most departments in an effort to maintain uniformity used only dark brown or black horses, they trimmed the mains on their horses they called it roaching. Black Maria These vehicles were usually painted black or a very dark blue. Become a contributor; Contributor homepage; Stockimo ; Contributor contract; … Conjured up a picture of some black ghostly wagon being pulled by black horses driven by some ghostly looking headless boogeyman hahaha the imagination, usually scared us enough to behave. Summary [General description] This photograph appeared in the Advertiser with the heading 'The passing of the horse' The caption underneath read: 'Black Maria to be sold: The police horse-patrol wagon, known as Black Maria, has been replaced by a modern motor vehicle, and is to be disposed of by auction' The vehicle is shown with a uniformed policeman sitting on a seat at its … Here come the Big Black Mariah This will in all probability have morphed into other things… A wheeled vehicle used to transport the sick, dying or dead became part and parcel of the “Black Mariah”. One need only watch the first Sherlock Holmes with R Downy Jr….the opening scene when LeStrade arrives and orders his officers to “Put them (the criminals) in the back of the Mariah”….Pretty cool. Often these were contained and then eventually enclosed – a vehicle you could not escape from. BLACK MARIA AS MEANING A HEARSE, In fact, it's one that's centuries old and happen to be the setting for Eclectic Pond's recent production Black Maria.. The other, of a large African-American woman named Maria who ran a Boston boarding house and assisted the police in apprehending fugitives, is too cute for my taste and, more importantly, doesn’t explain why the term first appeared in New York City. • BLACK MARIA (noun) The noun BLACK MARIA has 2 senses:. A card game in which players try to avoid winning tricks containing the queen of spades or any hearts. I knew I could get away if I had a chance, How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. Thus the [I]Black Mariah[/I] emerges. Michael Quinion, at his World Wide Words website (www.worldwidewords.org), mentions two such theories suggested by his readers. Sell. Mohammed Abacha, son of late Nigerian dictator [Sani] Abacha, descends from a Black Maria on arrival at court in Lagos December 8. Noun. Cookies. It is possible that “Black Mariah” as a police prisoner transport may refer to the name of a ship that carried prisoners overseas to an unknown fate, just like the police wagons. — John Moffo. Probably goes with our democracy. . | Restoration of Brake » Contact Us. Which of these is written in the passive? Anonymous. Black Maria is one of the Tobiroppo, the strongest six Shinuchi of the Beasts Pirates.4 She owns her own brothel on Onigashima near Kaido's mansion.2 Due to her actions and role, she is a supporting antagonist in the Wano Country Arc. A police vehicle for transporting prisoners. [Search domain http://www.latin-is-simple.com/en/vocabulary/noun/121/, Find mare (Noun) in the Latin … conjugation table: mare, maris, mari, mare, maria, marium’,
. The term “black Mariah” was used in the early 20th century of southern Ohio to describe a police transport vehicle. A Black Maria or secure vehicle used by the police to transport prisoners. I was born in 1939 Brooklyn, NY, and always remember, as a child back in the ’40s, Police vans called either “Paddy Wagons”, or “Black Marias”, with the emphasis on the “I” as in Rye. Favourite answer. But here are two possibilities. Information and translations of black maria in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. A likelier connection could be a famous race horse named Black Maria whose greatest victory was a 20 mile race run in New York in 1832. Thunder that the rain makes when the shadow tops the hill . Are you learning Spanish? Racial tensions between Indy residents and police are hardly a new concept. Here come the Big Black Mariah, It looks like even in russian language we got Blac Marusia (Marusia is variant of Maria name) from poem of Anna Akhmatova, who knew Black Maria from James Joyce’s “Ulisse”, My understanding of the expression the “Black Mariah or Maria” is that it originated from America where it referred to Police vans. Great movie btw! The name is said to have come from a large and powerful black lodging-house keeper named Maria Lee, who helped constables of Boston, Massachusetts in the 1830s when they needed to escort drunks to the cells. What about the idea that “maria” is the plural for the Latin “mare” or “female horse.” A black wagon pulled by horses . “THAT’S A HEARSE (HORSE) OF A DIFFERENT COLOR”. I was born in Glasgow Scotland in 1953 and as a child can remember clearly that the black mariah was indeed what we now refer to in Canada as a paddy wagon or prisoner transportation vehicle. hearts. I love this, there are so many old sayings that are disappearing and the people who used them too old too remember them or their meanings, or these older folk are simply not with us today. From the late 19th century until the mid-1920s, Queensland police utilised a horse drawn prison van (Black Maria). Snow had totally crippled the city and she of course she went into labor with her first baby, the only moving thing in the whole city was the heroic policeman that got that big black panel truck through all that terrible weather to my mom, then, through the blizzard safely to the hospital where my oldest sister was born. Black maria definition, patrol wagon. i think your about 30 years too late with this question, they arent called that anymore. Noun. Definition of black maria in the Definitions.net dictionary. View top quality illustrations of Sketches At The London Police Courts Black Maria 1887. The rest of the time, of course, the machine is as stupid as a toaster. Van used by police to transport prisoners. [Pennsylvania]The two were Quakers and as such were Abolitionists. Fashion designer Maria Cornejo wearing black trousers, black jumper with white detail on shoulders, black boots. Here come the Big Black Mariah baby Here come the Big Black Mariah The rest of the time, of course, the machine is as stupid as a toaster.”, “…the machine is as stupid as a toaster.”, I think it neatly replaces the very old adage: “The only real use for a computer is to tie a rope on it and use it as an anchor.”. A “Black Maria” is, as you say, a police van or similar conveyance used to transport prisoners to jail or to court appearances, and it’s worth noting at the outset that “Maria” in this case is usually pronounced “mah-RYE-ah,” as was common in the 19th century, rather than “mah-REE-ah.” Then again, “usually” is a bit of a stretch, because I haven’t heard the term spoken aloud in decades. A police van for transporting prisoners.. Black Maria Meaning. No one is certain as to how the vans came to have this name but it is … Autumn Wedding Autumn wedding near Shrewsbury the single horse Brougham on the way to the venue Read full article. why are police vans called black mariahs? My mother was taken to the hospital in a ‘Black Maria’ January 1944 in Chicago. Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions. Incidentally, “paddy wagon” takes its name from “Paddy,” a familiar form of the name Patrick (from the Irish form, Padraic or Padraig), which was used in early 20th century America as a derogatory term for Irish immigrants. This photograph depicts the 'Black Maria' police van used by the Queensland Police, ca. Mare when used for horse is Old English. They caught him with a gun Simon and Sarah achieved this task with a specially outfitted covered wagon called “Black Maria”, hanging a quilt to conceal their dozen person cargo; swiftly moving them along to the next waystation. The wagon being new at the time and introduced around the same time as the police call box, an officer would escort their prisoner to the call box and call for a police wagon. Buying from Alamy. Here come the Big Black Ford, Well I’m all boxed up on a red belle dame Latest News. 'Black Maria' was the nickname for secure police vans with separate locked cubicles, used for the transportation of prisoners. Dictionary entry overview: What does Black Maria mean? The expression Black Maria conjures up memories of the drab black police vans of yore which trundled through the streets of Victorian London, picking up drunks, thieves and pickpockets. “Come on bay beeeee. The origin of this term is equally uncertain. “Paddy” may well be a racial slur; but in some contexts it’s one that those to whom it applies take ownership of. They put us all in that Black Mariah. Mine’s a familial name from VA in the 1700s. For some reason the word paddy wagon was used for a vehicle used to pick up mental patients as it was padded inside to prevent people from injuring themselves. However, I also recall reading this same description in Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s books referring to a black car used by the KGB or police to secretly take away prisoners in the middle of the night. SJ Tuznik is very close to the truth too I think…. Does English Have More Words Than Any Other Language? We deeply appreciate the erudition and energy of our commenters. All of it being new time was indeed something that was being taken into consideration, and with the system not being as fast as they (headquarters) said it would be the patrolmen with a bit of sarcasm nicknamed the wagon and horse after the racehorse. You can set your cookie preferences using the toggles below. As to the origin, given the date and location of first usage in print (NYC, 1835) the theory that the name comes from a famous contemporary black racehorse seems to make the most sense. Getinto my big black caaaar… A vessel (ship) used to take people away to a place from where they may never return. 1867, Tony Pastor, “The Upper and Lower Ten Thousand” in Tony Pastor’s Book of Six Hundred Comic Songs and Speeches: 1.1.1. We don't know. Catawiki Toys … Lived in boston mass large Irish population 1950.s era lot of Irish cops every one called it the paddy wagon no PC back then hit you with the Billy club throw you in the paddy wagon. The identity of the officer sitting in the driver seat is unknown. Also interesting is the use of the word goal to describe a jail, as the term the prisoner was sentenced to 30 days in goal was used in newspaper reporting up into the 1980’s. Exact synonyms: Paddy Wagon, Patrol Wagon, Police Van, Police Wagon, Wagon Generic synonyms: Van. A "black maria" is a slang term for a police wagon. Registration number. Find premium, high-resolution illustrative art at Getty Images. My father used to use this term when describing the RCMP prisoner panel trucks of the 40’s and 50’s in Prince George BC Canada. truck made little sense, speaking of which these terms Black Maria and Paddywagon are not official terms, they are nicknames used by police and or public. You know it means no mercy It goes that Maria was monstrously huge and any man who would dare to challenge her to a fight either had a death wish or was plain crazy. Now, they got us outta there like a house afire, How come ‘Black Maria’ is americanism as we here in Finland call our paddy wagons with the name ‘Musta Maija’. A hundred yellow bullets with a rag out in the wind It’s like having a little person living inside my computer deciding whether people, places and things are famous enough to pass muster. What does black maria mean? (Of course, Black Mariah may be a reference to some unrecognized death figure from myth, legend or song…). Video shows what Black Maria means. Two of these vans worked the Brisbane city area until 1936 when one was converted into a truck and the other … As a consequence, these vans became known as “Black Mariahs or Black Marias.”. Blake then tried to get into the SUV, Wray said. This is the easiest way to find a column on a particular word or phrase. Here come the Big Black Ford yeah, Now we’re all boxed up on a red belle dame The term was common in other places too… Most certainly in Scotland and England – particularly London where there was a fair old Scottish influence. The couple received hundreds of passengers from a farm owned by John and Hannah Pierce Cox near the area that is today Longwood Gardens. 0 0. earl. He was town marshall of a small town in == “It’s like having a little person living inside my computer deciding whether people, places and things are famous enough to pass muster. A name for the queen of spades in the game of Black Maria. So when the wagon first began its use in the 1880’s they were simply called a police wagon, I have heard some say Patrol wagon which is odd because they were not used to patrol… but anyway, Police Wagon… then around the time Black Maria stopped making sense. Now, they might’ve missed a pitiful few, ‘mare, maris [n.] I – Latin is Simple Online Dictionary Create your free account. … I’ve spent a lifetime explaining the pronunciation of my name. Definition of Black maria. I had heard the Black Maria referred to as a paddy wagon and a hearse. Dear Word Detective: I have seen the term “The Black Maria” referred to in terms of what we call a “paddy wagon” here in the States. Video of Landau and Pair. WHICH WERE TRADITIONALLY ALWAYS BLACK, As Maurice Clark Scott suggests, “Myrhia” might be a more accurate spelling and certainly reflects how my Granda’ would have pronounced it. van - a truck with an enclosed cargo space. With a further Irish connection, “Black Mariah” might also refer to a ship conveying the Irish (and other Europeans) to the United States in record numbers during the great potato blights beginning in the 1830s. 1. Video by Martha Lily Thompson of Wellington Carriage … One might assume that this use is similarly derogatory, referring to a supposed propensity of Irish-Americans to be arrested, but big city police forces of the period were themselves composed largely of Irish-Americans, so the term may well have simply referred to a wagon driven by “the paddies,” i.e., the police. Black Maria - a form of whist in which players avoid winning tricks containing hearts or the queen of spades. And once the prisoner is in the wagon, there’s no need for speed. And so they brought their “Black Mariahs” with them! As for the term Paddywagon, it doesn’t turn up a lot until after the 1950’s keeping in mind police didn’t have motorized vehicles until sometime between 1910 and 1920 and they continued calling the wagon the Black Maria. Finnish paddy wagons have never been black, they’ve always been dark blue with white markings. Had never heard it outside of its use in the song where it’s used in reference to a wind. Sounds ominous. From Louis Jordan’s “Saturday Night Fish Fry”: Now, I didn’t know we were breakin’ the law, Like a hammer or a screwdriver or a toaster it will not last forever, it is useful in VERY specific instances and is usually (at a cost)replaceable. One, centering on an upper-class woman in 19th century London who was known for wearing splendid black dresses, fails on the simple fact that “Black Maria” is indisputably of American origin. I’ve always wondered where that term came from, and thought you might enlighten me. 1971 Austin J4 'Black Maria' police van. And they were throwin”em in the wagon like potato sacks. Simon Barnard and his wife Sarah Darlington Barnard were conductors along the Underground Railroad operating a waystation in Newlin Township, Chester County. Mohammed Abacha, 29, and four former security aides stand accused of the … The nine cast member show is written by Bennett Ayres — who works as a researcher with the Historical Society in the Museum Theatre Department and in the galleries … To know we can come here and find out what the sayings originally meant is great. Licenses and pricing; Browse by category; Fresh picks; Footage gallery; Live news feed; Customer help; Apply for credit account; Selling with Alamy. That old blind tiger on a, Oh yeah Help. I was looking for information about the connotation and found this article. ‘Musta’ is finnish for ‘black’ and Maija is finnishization of Maria. I remember the “black mariah”, my parents saying behave or the black mariah will come. But they got both me and my buddy, too. My spell-checker is fine with “Solzhenitsyn,” but chokes on your last name, Moffo, which you share with the late great Italian-American operatic soprano Anna Moffo. A form of whist in which players avoid winning tricks containing hearts or the queen of spades. These vans were named after Maria Lee who was a Black American woman who ran boarding houses for sailors in Boston, Massachusetts. It reminds us to always respect the tool as just what it is. Flat Blue Johnny with a blind man’s cane Three years later, police vehicles in the city became known as Black Marias. That old blind tiger an old bell, Here come the Big Black Mariah Mare means sea in Latin MrsFontes. Relevance. EVEN IN THE OLD WEST, THE HORSE OR MULE DRAWN ONES. See more. Packing down the ladder with the hammer to the floor, Here come the Big Black Mariah Learn more. The term beer parlour was common also, with its separate ladies and escorts signage above the door ways. 1925. 5 years ago. It's here! Exact synonyms: Hearts Generic synonyms: Long Whist, Short Whist, Whist. No need for the Black Maria The Upper Ten Thousand have plenty of cash— At the Central Park, on the “Drive,” cut a dash; They have their light wagons, fast horses beside; In the free “Black Maria” the Lower Ten ride. – During an outbreak of disease for instance, an old ship might be moored (marooned – a Myrhia) just offshore or even loaded up(with people)and set adrift. When the policman said “Where you goin’ there, Bub?”. It seems entirely plausible that the name of the horse thereafter would be sardonically applied to the police carriages, usually colored black, which swiftly transported miscreants to jail. And more broadly, of northern Europe, as Topi Linkala’s post reflects. Big light on the back street hill to evermore Meaning of black maria. Between 1803 and 1853, convicts were shipped from England to Australia. The back of the vehicle is a police cell. In 1925 the body from the horse drawn Black Maria was mounted on a Bean truck chassis and so was born the first motorised prison van. “Black Maria” was a famous racehorse of the day, born in Harlem in 1826, whose exploits were widely celebrated in the newspapers. But I was shakin’ like I had the St. Vitus dance. Here come the Big Black Mariah They only served beer in those days, and to get hard drinks you had to go to the lounge. New user? paddy wagon, patrol wagon, police van, police wagon, wagon. And the Irish certainly had ‘ownership’ of the early New York Police force. Interesting. The notion of a black mah-ree-ah is just wrong; it’s never properly pronounced so. (slang) A police van for transporting prisoners.quotations ▼ 1.1. But there came a time when we had a boatload of Irish Police in this country, more and more with the motorized vehicles, departments were using vehicles in colors another than black, so Black Maria (as has been stated previously pronounced “Mah-RYE-ah, (Mariah Carey) anyway using the term Black Maria with a blue, tan, green etc. My mom is 87 now and say’s she can still see the rough gentle faces of those men. 1 Appearance 1.1 Gallery 2 Personality 3 Abilities and Powers 3.1 Tactical Skills 3.2 Devil Fruit 4 History 4.1 Wano Country Arc 5 Trivia 6 … 400+ pages of science questions answered and explained for kids -- and adults! Indiana during the depression. “Any officer worth their salt, they’re not going to let someone leave under these … Now I tried to crawl under a bathtub 1971 Austin J4 'Black Maria' police van; 1971 Austin J4 'Black Maria' police van; 206,875,030 stock photos, vectors and videos. ,,,,, HENCE THE EXPRESSION 1. van used by police to transport prisoners 2. a form of whist in which players avoid winning tricks containing hearts or the queen of spades Familiarity information: BLACK MARIA used as a noun is rare. I can’t see a horse known for speed having its name connected to a police transport which was never known for swiftness. They had us blocked off from the front to the back As “paddy” is a racial slur well established before the 1800s, the term “paddy wagon” must definitely mean the vehicle delivering or carrying away “paddies.” I can more easily see it meaning the delivery of police (mostly Irish in New York) to a scene, rather than the more socially conscious reference to the amount of Irish taken away by it. Flat Blue Johnny with a blind man’s cane Best to you all… English is the greatest language in the world simply because we are not afraid to borrow and we eschew rigor.