The range of commoners was broad; it consisted of everyone not of noble birth, and therefore included everyone from the poorest farmers to wealthy craftsmen and commoners appointed to bureaucratic positions.  Eclipses were interpreted as the sun or moon being bitten, and lunar tables were recorded in order that the Maya might be able to predict them, and perform the appropriate ceremonies to ward off disaster.  In the 8th–9th centuries, intensive warfare resulted in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Petexbatún region of western Petén.  The Río Bec sites of the base of the peninsula include Becan, Chicanná, Kohunlich, and Xpuhil. , Although the Calendar Round is still in use today, the Maya started using an abbreviated Short Count during the Late Classic period. , A sajal was ranked below the ajaw, and indicated a subservient lord. Maya Civilization. Unfortunately, the inscriptions left by the Maya themselves are strangely silent on the topic. The major pre-Columbian population centres of the highlands were located in the largest highland valleys, such as the Valley of Guatemala and the Quetzaltenango Valley. The Toltecs, a new tribe in the region, took over the vacant urban centers and re-populated them. There are two calendars at work simultaneously in the Maya system: the Haab, or civil calendar of 365 days in an 18 month period of 20 days each, and the Tzolkin, or sacred calendar, of 260 days divided into three groups of months of 20 days. Learn more about the Maya here. Those people who were offered to the gods did not `die' but simply moved on. ya. https://www.ancient.eu/Maya_Civilization/. , Solar and lunar eclipses were considered to be especially dangerous events that could bring catastrophe upon the world. It was also where the inhabitants of the city gathered for public activities. Saturno, Stuart and Beltrán 2006, p. 1282.  As the Maya civilization developed, the ruling elite codified the Maya world view into religious cults that justified their right to rule.  The value of a numeral was determined by its position; as a numeral shifted upwards, its basic value multiplied by twenty. The most generally accepted correlation is the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson, or GMT, correlation. C4 would be third block counting from the left, and the fourth block counting downwards. 832–33. The Maya had no knowledge of the potter's wheel, and Maya vessels were built up by coiling rolled strips of clay into the desired form.  The titles of ah tzʼihb and ah chʼul hun are both related to scribes. Maya is the daughter of a couple who was placed by her father under the care of her maternal uncle when her mother died while giving birth to her. Palaces and acropoleis were essentially elite residential compounds. What makes the game even more impressive is that a player could not use the hands or the feet, only the hips, shoulders, head and knees. On 10 May 2012 CE it was reported that Boston University archaeologist William Saturno and Boston University student Maxwell Chamberlain, excavating at the Maya site of Xultun in Guatemala, discovered a 6x6 foot room dating to 800 CE which seems conclusively to have been a calendar workshop for Mayan scribes. Some junior members of the Copán royal dynasty have also been found buried with their writing implements. Caso Barrera and Aliphat Fernández 2007, p. 49. , Mayapan was abandoned around 1448, after a period of political, social and environmental turbulence that in many ways echoed the Classic period collapse in the southern Maya region. Residential units were built on top of stone platforms to raise them above the level of the rain season floodwaters. (2012, July 06).  When the Spanish arrived, Postclassic cities in the highlands had markets in permanent plazas, with officials on hand to settle disputes, enforce rules, and collect taxes. , During the Contact period, it is known that certain military positions were held by members of the aristocracy, and were passed on by patrilineal succession. , The basic staples of the Maya diet were maize, beans, and squashes. Generally only high status prisoners of war were sacrificed, with lower status captives being used for labour.  The government of Maya states, from the Yucatán to the Guatemalan highlands, was often organised as joint rule by a council.  Some elements were first deciphered in the late 19th and early 20th century, mostly the parts having to do with numbers, the Maya calendar, and astronomy.  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